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Storage and Settings

The storage API provides a way to store and read settings persistently, e.g. in a local file or remotely on a cloud service. Settings include things such as:

As storage is still a new API, only a handful settings are supported at the time of writing. More settings will be added over time. To request a new setting, please open a new issue.

Available Storage Modules

The following storage modules are shipped with pyatv:

Module Description API
MemoryStorage Stores settings within an instance in memory and are discarded when the object is no longer referenced. storage.memory_storage.MemoryStorage
FileStorage Stores settings in a file in JSON format. storage.file_storage.FileStorage
AbstractStorage Base class to ease development of custom storage modules, see here. storage.AbstractStorage

All main methods in pyatv (pyatv.connect, pyatv.scan and pyatv.pair) accept storage as an argument. Typically a storage instance is created once and are then passed on to all mentioned methods. If no storage module is provided, a storage.memory_storage.MemoryStorage instance is created internally and used for storage.

Storage Guidelines

When using the storage API, there are a few guidelines to consider:

The gist is more or less that settings are independent on device level (you can set different MAC addresses per device for instance) and they apply instantly. It is however not certain that it will be used until the next pyatv.connect call, since many settings are only used when connecting.

Internally, pyatv will automatically populate the provided storage with new devices when scanning and also insert credentials when pairing. Once a protocol has been successfully paired, no further credential management is necessary as the credentials will be available via the storage.

Settings are managed via an instance of settings.Settings, typically available via interface.AppleTV.settings. It is also possible to retrieve settings directly from storage using interface.Storage.get_settings.

Note: All changes made to a storage are stored in memory only until is called. Make sure to call this method after all relevant updates, otherwise they will be lost!

Settings Priority

Storage is treated as a “first-class citizen” in pyatv. This means that internally, whenever pyatv needs settings for a configuration, it will load whatever is in storage and overwrite what is currently set in the configuration. If a setting is not present in storage, the corresponding setting in the configuration will however remain unchanged.

The practical way of thinking about this is that settings and configurations are modified independently, i.e. you can change a setting in storage to one value and corresponding setting in the configuration to another value, thus creating an inconsistency. However, when you call a pyatv method, e.g. pyatv.connect, settings will be loaded from storage and overwrite whatever is set in the configuration. Here is a simple example illustrating this:

storage = FileStorage("pyatv.conf", loop)

conf = await pyatv.scan(loop, identifier="xxx")[0]    # Scan without storage
conf.get_service(Protocol.AirPlay).password ="pyatv"  # Change something in configuration

settings = await storage.get_settings(conf)           # "conf" does not exist in this storage => new settings
                                                      # password for AirPlay will be copied

conf.get_service(Protocol.AirPlay).password ="pass"   # Change to something else
settings = await storage.get_settings(conf)           # "conf" exists => return existing settings with
                                                      # AirPlay password set to "pyatv"

# connect will read settings from storage and apply to configuration (e.g. "pyatv" as AirPlay password)
atv = await pyatv.connect(conf, loop, storage=storage)

If you make changes to a configuration and want to save them, use interface.Storage.update_settings explicitly to force an update to storage:

storage = FileStorage("pyatv.conf", loop)
conf = await pyatv.scan(loop, identifier="xxx", storage=storage)[0]  # Scan and insert into storage

conf.get_service(Protocol.AirPlay).credentials ="new_creds"  # Change something in configuration
await storage.update_settings(conf)

# "new_creds" have been saved to storage, so connect till use that password
atv = await pyatv.connect(conf, loop, storage=storage)

The recommended way to alter settings is update settings directly in storage, i.e. by changing the instance returned by interface.Storage.get_settings and not changing the configuration.

Using the Storage API

Create a new storage of choice:

from import FileStorage

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
storage = FileStorage("pyatv.json", loop)
await storage.load()

Note that the storage must be loaded using interface.Storage.load in order to fetch settings from the underlying storage, e.g. reading from file. Not calling this method results in undefined behavior.

Scanning with storage:

confs = await pyatv.scan(loop, storage=storage)

The storage will automatically be populated with all discovered devices.

To pair with a storage:

pairing = await pair(atvs[0], Protocol.AirPlay, loop, storage=storage)

When a successful pairing has been made, the resulting credentials are automatically inserted into the storage for further references.

To connect with storage:

atv = await pyatv.connect(confs[0], loop, storage=storage)

An instance of settings.Settings containing loaded settings is available via interface.AppleTV.settings.

Changes made to settings in the storage are only stored in memory and must be saved using to make them persistent:


Storages are supposed to keep track of changes and only save changes if something has actually changed.

Default File Storage

When using tools bundled with pyatv, e.g. atvremote or atvscript, storage.file_storage.FileStorage is used with the file $HOME/.pyatv.conf. You can tap into this storage with your own applications, thus sharing credentials with pyatv. There is a convenience method called storage.file_storage.FileStorage.default_storage that is recommended to use as it is platform agnostic:

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
storage = FileStorage.default_storage(loop)
await storage.load()

Changing Settings

As stated in Storage Guidelines, some settings are only used when connecting while others can be used at any given time (e.g. port numbers). It is recommended to update settings prior to connecting, but it is allowed to change setting even after connecting but the changes might not apply until the next time you connect.

To get settings for a device, use interface.Storage.get_settings:

conf = ... # Scan for device

settings = await storage.get_settings(conf)

To change setting, simply set new values according to your needs: = "My App"  # Named used when pairing
settings.mac = "aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff"  # MAC address pyatv presents itself when needed

settings.raop.password = "never_gonna_give_you_up"

Remember to save changes to storage to ensure they are stored persistently (

To find available settings, look at settings.Settings in the API reference as each field are described there (including default values when applicable).

Custom Storage Module

To implement your own storage module, it is recommended to inherit from storage.AbstractStorage and implement the missing methods. Internally pyatv uses pydantic for the storage model, simplifying things like serialization when storing and loading settings. The storage.AbstractStorage.storage_model property is used to get the current representation but also to update it when loading a model from an external source.

Simply put:

A simple pseudo example looks like this:

import json
from import AbstractStorage

class CloudStorage(AbstractStorage):

    def __init__(self, cloud_api):
        self.cloud_api = cloud_api

    async def save(self) -> None:
        if self.changed:
            json_data = self.storage_model.model_dump_json(exclude_defaults=True)
            await"myfile.json", json_data)

    async def load(self) -> None:
        json_data = await self.cloud_api.load("myfile.json")
        self.storage_model = StorageModel(**json.loads(json_data))

Nothing else is really needed to implement a new storage module (implementing __str__ for debugging purposes is also recommended). Do note how storage.AbstractStorage.changed and storage.AbstractStorage.mark_as_saved are used to only save the storage model in case it was changed. This removes unnecessary writes to disk since the same content would be re-written every time is called otherwise.

More complex implementations may inherit from interface.Storage directly, but additional care must be taken to implement the interface correctly.

Note: Ensure to pass exclude_defaults=True when dumping the model, otherwise you will also save default values. This pollutes the output a lot, but also causes problems if default values are changed in pyatv as the settings written to storage will be used instead, i.e. old default values.

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